Last updated on September 24th, 2023 at 12:34 am
Textile is the second basic needs of human being. It has such an important bearing on our daily lives that everyone needs to know something about them. From earliest times, people have used textiles of various types for covering, warmth, personal adornment, and even to display personal wealth. Today textiles are still used for these purposes and everyone is an ultimate consumer. Though we are not the direct purchaser, we use it in our daily life. As for example, the buyers buy the product from the manufacturers, then they display in the shopping mall and then we buy the products to use.
Many industries, such as the auto mobile industry, are important consumers of textiles in various forms. Some other consumers are homemakers, dressmakers, and interior decorators. As well as students who are studying for these and various other occupations and professions in which knowledge of textile is of major importance.
Definition of Textile
Textile is a fabric (Woven or knitted) made from yarn. Though it is referred to woven fabric, it is also applied to fibre, yarn, fabric and any other product made from these. It is also associated with the production of clothing.
It can also be defined as follows –
- Any product manufactured by weaving, knitting or felting.
- Any kind of raw material like fibre or yarn, suitable for weaving.
- Anything is related to fabrics or producing of fabrics.
- The fundamental component of ready made garments.
- A finished piece of cloth used for specific purpose.
- Any kind of material composed of natural or synthetic fibre.
Basic Textile Materials
The basic Textile materials are as follows:
The textile industries use many different types of raw materials. Raw materials begin in agriculture with fibre production of cotton, flax, and other fibrous plants; in husbandry of sheep, other animals, and silkworms; in mining of metals and minerals.
The fibres are processed into yarns. The yarns are made into fabrics for industrial and consumer uses by various means, such as weaving and knitting.
The undyed and unfinished fabric is called grey cloth.
Grey fabrics are converted into finished fabrics, which provide particular appearance and performances.
Finished fabrics are made into end-use products, including apparel, home furnishings, and various industrial applications. These products are then merchandise and sold.
Sources and Types
Textiles are made from many materials. The materials can be classified into four groups – plant, animal, mineral and synthetics.
The fibres which comes from the plants is called plant fibres. Plant fibres are also called vegetable fibres. The plant fibres are listed below:
There are several animal fibres, each obtained from different sources, but only two are recognized as major textile fibres. They are wool and silk. Minor hair fibres are listed below:
- Rabbit and
Asbestos: Asbestos is a natural fibre obtained from varieties of rock. It is a fibrous form of silicate of magnesium and calcium, containing iron, aluminium, and other materials. It is acid proof, rust proof, and flame proof. Consequently it has been used for materials requiring certain of these characteristics.
These fibres are generated by man. We do not get these fibres from nature but are generated from natural (cellulose and protein) and chemical substances.
There are several categories of synthetic fibres: cellulosic, non-cellulosic polymers, protein, rubber, metallic, and mineral.
Uses of Textile
Textiles have varieties of uses as follows –
- The most common use is as clothing.
- Also used for containers such as bags and baskets.
- Household uses include carpeting, upholstery furnishings, bed coverings, pillow coverings, table cloths, mat, towels, blankets etc.
- Miscellaneous uses include flags, tents, nets etc.
- Transportation uses such as kites, sales, parachutes etc.
- Technical textiles are used as structures of automobiles, medical textiles are used as gauze, bandages etc., agro-textiles are used for the protection of crops etc.
- Traditional uses such as sewing, quilting and embroidery.