The system of methodological standards for determining the abrasion resistance of fabrics by the Martindale method is systematically introduced, and the relationship between European standards, German standards, and the American Society for Materials is pointed out.
It points out that the relationship between European standards, German standards, American Materials Council standards, Chinese standards, and international standards ISO is equivalent to or modified—The Martindale method for determining the abrasion resistance of fabrics.
There are three methods for determining the abrasion resistance of fabrics by the Martindale method:
- The method of measuring the damage to specimens
- The process of measuring the loss of mass
- The way of changing the quality of appearance
Among the three methods, the commonly used method is the measurement of specimen breakage.
The method has minor errors, the test result is intuitive and straightforward, and the abrasion resistance of different fabrics is easy to compare, so it is commonly used in clothing products and decorative fabrics.
Determining the mass loss and appearance quality change methods is more complicated. But It can reflect the abrasion resistance of specimens at different friction stages.
The abrasion resistance condition of the specimen at different rubbing stages has strong practicality in the analysis of fabric usage by manufacturing enterprises or scientific research institutions.
This Paper is Based on National Standard
GB/T21196.2~4-2007, the main contents of the three methods for determining fabric abrasion resistance by the Martindale method are outlined, hoping to help the textile.
Hopefully, it will help textile quality inspection personnel correctly understand and apply the Martindale method for testing fabric abrasion resistance.
Determine the specimen’s mass per unit area, the unit area of the specimen ≥ 500g/m2, without foam liner, and the specimen < 500g/m2, specimen fixture with foam liner.
Total Effective Mass of Friction Load Selection
The total effective mass of the friction load includes the gripper, stainless steel disc, and the mass of the specimen weight. According to the technical data provided by the APLAS M235 Martindale Abrasion Tester Resistance and puckering tester, the gripper mass: (200±1)g; the stainless steel disc mass: (260±1)g; the specimen weight is mass: (395±2)g, and (594±2)g.
According to the use of specimen, fabric characteristics to choose the corresponding friction load total effective mass has three options:
1) (795±7)g: Applicable to work clothing, furniture decoration cloth, bed linen products and industrial fabrics.
2) (595±7)g: For taking and home textiles (furniture decoration cloth, bed linen and linen products, non-taking coated fabrics
3) (198±2)g: Applicable to taking coated fabrics.
Abrasive Replacement Cycle
Wool standard fabric: 50K times and standard water sandpaper: 60K times.
The number of times the specimen rubs when it reaches breakage is predicted, and the appropriate inspection interval is designed based on this, as the specimen wear resistance test process. An inspection interval is a certain number of times of friction.
Measurement Results Representation
Determine the total friction times when each specimen is broken, and take the accumulated friction times before the specimen is broken as the number of wear resistance.
The Fabric Wear Resistance Evaluation Method
Specimen breakage conditions are: woven fabric with at least two independent yarns completely broken; knitted fabric in a yarn breakage, resulting in the appearance of the broken hole; pile or cut pile fabric surface pile is worn to the bottom or pile cluster off; non-woven fabrics due to friction caused by the hole’s diameter ≥ 0.5mm.
Coated fabric coating part is damaged to reveal the base cloth or has a piece of coating off. Fabric wear resistance is generally analyzed and evaluated from three aspects: Measurement of specimen damage, measurement of quality loss, and evaluation of appearance changes.
Determination of Specimen Breakage
Under a specific load, the specimen is rubbed against the abrasive in the jig with a Lissajous curve plane movement to the total number of friction when the specimen is broken to determine the wear resistance of the fabric.
Determination of Mass Loss
Under a specific load, the specimen in the fixture is rubbed against the abrasive with a trajectory of Lissajous curve plane movement to the specimen at a specific number of times of friction to determine the wear resistance by the difference in quality before and after friction.
Evaluation of Appearance Change
Under a specific load, the specimen in the jig is rubbed against the abrasive with a Lissajous curved plane motion.
The fabric’s abrasion resistance is determined by the change in the specimen’s appearance before and after rubbing.
For Martindale abrasion tester & pilling testing, you can choose the ChiuVention Smartindale martindale abrasion & Pilling tester.
Smartindale replaced the traditional analog drive with a digital drive. It is an exclusive innovation in the industry. The combination of dual servo motors, microcontroller, embedded, mathematical model, point-to-point drive, etc., Single point directly generated LISSAJOUS, with higher precision and reliability of the equipment.
The dual action of the servo driver and position sensor allows the instrument to achieve accurate testing continuously.
It can be connected through Wi-Fi with SmarTexLab App installed in smartphones, set parameters, monitor the test status, receive equipment warning reminders, replenishment reminders, etc., and share test results with one click.
One-click Testing Modes Shifting
Compared to conventional Martindale, with the Smartindale, you don’t need to remove the top plate and change the pins; just click one key of the screen to switch the testing modes from abrasion to pilling (e.g., straight line mode, prominent Lissajous figure, small Lissajous figure).
The moving guide plate can be operated by one hand and automatically closes, with an anti-collision function, which is more friendly to testers.
The excellent manufacturing accuracy of machining and assembly makes the abrading table and specimen holder highly parallel to each other during running and the specimen holder has a small runout to the surface of the abrading table (less than 0.05mm), which is more conducive to obtaining reliable test results.
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