Human Behavior: Classification, Characteristics and Causation

Last updated on August 5th, 2023 at 12:32 am

Definition of Behavior

Behavior can be defined as the actions or reactions of a person in response to external or internal stimulus situation. We understand behavior when we know that what is caused or made the person do it. We evaluate behavior when we approve or disapprove it. Both understanding and evaluation is a common reaction that
individual engage daily.

What is human behavior? Classification of human behavior

Psychology is a science of activity of people which lead to an understanding of nature of behavior. Behavior is always the product of two things, one- the nature of individual or organism that behaves and second- the nature of situation in which the individual find himself.

Situation is a source of stimulus and is always the organism’s response to stimulus from environment.

According to Crowder “Behavior is any activity which can be observed, recorded and measured, this includes first what living beings or organisms do- that is their movement in space”.

Psychologists analyze behavior from two point of view- Overt & Covert, the behavior that is visible and what occurs outside of human being is called overt behavior. Example- playing football and eating something are overt behavior. 

The behavior that is not visible and what occurs inside of human being is called covert behavior. Example- thinking.

Psychologist Luine express behavior through an equation as –

B=∫ (P x E)    where, B= Behavior, ∫=Function, P=Person, E=Environment.

Behavior is a function of people and environment. Environment creates stimulus situation, it is human nature to respond stimulus situation. 

Classification of Human Behavior

To analyze and measure the behavior psychologists have divided behavior into different classes. Classification of human behavior given below-

Behavior can be defined as the actions or reactions of a person in response to external or internal stimulus situation.

Molecular and Moral Behavior

Molecular Behavior

The sudden behavior what occurs without thinking something is called molecular behavior. Example: Abul hits a stick on Kuddus eyes and Kuddus closes his eyes at once. This is molecular behavior. Unpredictable situation whereas Kuddus has not any preparation to his eyes or face situation.

Moler Behavior

Moler behavior is the opposite of molecular behavior. When human behavior occurs with a thinking process is called moler behavior. Example: counter attract.

Overt & Covert Behavior

Overt Behavior

The behavior that is visible and what occurs outside of human being is called overt behavior. Example: Playing football, eating something is overt behavior.        

Covert Behavior

The behavior that is not visible and what occurs inside of human being is called covert behavior. Example: thinking.

Voluntary and Involuntary Behavior

Voluntary Behavior

The behavior what depend on human want is called voluntary behavior. Human beings always have control on voluntary behavior. Example: Speaking, walking, writing etc. 

Involuntary Behavior 

Behavior what occurs naturally is called involuntary behavior.

Example: Movement of heart, taking oxygen and giving up carbon dioxide.

Accomplishment of one bit behavior may become the stimulus for further behavior.

It is possible to control such a behavior by education, training, experience and environment

Characteristics of Human Behavior

Behavior is any activity which can be observed, recorded and measured. Individual behave with in an environment, it is human nature to respond stimulus situation created by internal and external environment. Characteristics of human behavior can be express as under-

Social Rules and Regulations 

Human are social beings and obedient to social rules and regulations. Social rules and regulation drives an individual in a particular way.

Language and Understanding 

Human beings express their feelings and emotion and conversation with each other through language. Interaction of individual and group helps them convey their news and views.

Education and Knowledge

Education is power which enables an individual to acknowledge the difference between right and wrong. The value of practice in acquiring skill or knowledge common feature of human behavior. Education and knowledge are important modification of human behavior.


It is human nature to change in order to deal successfully with new situation. Human beings always face changing environment. Adaptability with changing environment is a common characteristic of human behavior.

Capacity to learn Knowledge

Only human being is capable enough to learn knowledge. Human beings can increase their capacity by acquiring knowledge and experience. This is unique characteristic of human beings.


Human beings behave with a view to accomplishing their common aim that drives him to a particular direction. Drive or aim pursues goal directed behavior.

Human being is great in Behavior and Knowledge

Human being is great in their behavior and knowledge, capable enough to board their knowledge and experience. 

Causation of Behavior

Behavior is a result of interaction between individual and situation. It is human nature to response stimulus situation. There is a cause sequence of human behavior. The cause sequence of human behavior are explain below-

Stimulus Situation

Stimulus may be created by light, sound, job routine, other people action of supervisor and any aspect of environment in which a person is sensitive.


When stimulus situation faced by a person then organism automatically start. Organism may be heredity, maturation, biological needs and many learning such as knowledge, skills, certain needs attitude and values.


Behavior is a result of stimulus situation and individual organism that lead to a person to do or behave. Behavior may be body movement, talking, facial expression, emotional responses and thinking.


The latest sequence is accomplishment. Accomplishment occurs when stimulus situation change. Further accomplishment may include survival, accident, attract from others.

You may like also: What is Industrial Psychology? Importance of Industrial Psychology

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He is Abu Sayed, the founder of the blog site Textile Apex. He is a Textile Engineer having eight years plus practical experience in the Textile and Clothing industries. With a deep love for fashion and a keen eye for detail, he combines his creative flair with extensive knowledge to offer insightful and engaging content to his readers.
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18 thoughts on “Human Behavior: Classification, Characteristics and Causation

  1. Olagbayi Eric June 1st 2017
    Thanks I was looking for patterns of human behaviour and found your blog,it was really helpful.Can i please ask hoe does human behaviour influence our response to organizational change and development

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  3. Thanks for your legal compliment. I wanted to remove the content but it was ranked in the Google search engine and that's why I didn't remove it. It is just a subjective topic for the Textile Engineering students. In Textile Industry Engineers have to know about human behavior, psychology etc. Thats it.

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