Some Important Terms of Fabric Structure and Design

Last updated on September 5th, 2023 at 11:13 am

The weave shows the interlacing pattern of warp and weft. Each weave consists of the following parts or fields.

Weaving plan

Contact Fields

These are the contact points between warp and weft crossing at right angle. The number of contact fields always equals the product of the number of warp and weft threads. Contact field = RNwa X RNwe = 3 X 3 = 9

Interlacing Field

These are the points where a yarn of one system of threads changes its position in relation to the other system. A distinction is made between single and double interlacing fields.

Single Interlacing Field

The yarn bends from the top of the fabric to the bottom and covers two or more yarns.

Single interlacing field

Double Interlacing Field

The yarn bends, cover a following yarn, bends again and reappears at the same fabric side.

Double interlacing field

Interlacing fields are active fields since they provide the fabric cohesion.

Free Field

These are the zones where the warp and weft yarns do not touch and do not change fabric side. Because of the free field floats are formed and the yarns in the weave may shift.

Open Field

These are zones where neither warps nor weft threads occur. The number of open field is important, for example for air and water permeability.

Open field = RNwa X RNwe = 3 X 3 = 9, same as contact field

Where, RN = Repeat number

Wa = warp and We= Weft

Formula Number

It is one kind of short-hand system representing the weaving of warp or weft yarn. It gives the successive floats. The number of floats always equals the number of figures in the formula number. The warp floats coming up are put above the fraction line, the warp floats going down are put under the fraction line.

Formula number
Formula number


FNwa = Formula number for the warp and FNwe = Formula number for the weft.

Repeat Number

It indicates the number of warp and weft yarns in the repeat. The repeat number for the warp equals the sum of the figures in the formula number for the weft and vice versa.

Interlacing Ratio

The interlacing ratio of a fabric is the ratio between the actual number of interlacing fields and the maximum number of interlacing fields. The degree of interlacing is the interlacing ratio expressed as percentage.

You may also like: How to Identify the Warp and Weft yarn of a Woven Fabric

Share this post :
He is Abu Sayed, the founder of the blog site Textile Apex. He is a Textile Engineer having eight years plus practical experience in the Textile and Clothing industries. With a deep love for fashion and a keen eye for detail, he combines his creative flair with extensive knowledge to offer insightful and engaging content to his readers.
Posts created 420

One thought on “Some Important Terms of Fabric Structure and Design

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Related Posts

Begin typing your search term above and press enter to search. Press ESC to cancel.

Back To Top