Last updated on July 16th, 2023 at 11:26 am
Jute fibre, also known as “the golden fibre of Bangladesh,” is a long, soft, shiny vegetable fibre obtained from the jute plant’s bark (Corchorus spp.). It is one of the world’s most affordable and widely used natural fibres. Primarily it grows in tropical regions, including India, Bangladesh, China, and Thailand.
It is composed mainly of cellulose, a complex carbohydrate that gives it strength and durability. The plant grows to about 10-12 feet and has a thin, cylindrical stem with fibrous strands.
Physical and Chemical Properties of Jute Fibre
The reeds of Jute fibre vary from 3 to 14 feet long, depending on the grade, and they show taper from root to end. Thick reeds contain coarse fibre and thin reeds contain finer fibre. It constitutes with ultimate fibres of average length of 2.5mm.
It is a coarse fibre. Its diameter varies from 6 to 20 microns.
Fibres are not so strong when compared with some other bast fibres but have good tensile strength. Fibres are naturally hard and brittle and break off with abrasion. Resistance to mechanical wear is low and not durable
especially on exposure in moisture reduces its strength. Its extension at break is 2%.
The best quality fibres are pale white or silvery grey, common qualities are brownish and greenish are inferior, roots are usually darker without any luster. Better quality fibres shows matt and pitted surface with very poor strength.
Better quality fibres have fairly high luster but inferior quality fibres shows matt and pitted surface with very poor strength.
Base portion of the Jute stems is more rigid and has a stronger supporting bark than the rest of the stem. This is due to longer exposure of this part to the action of the sunlight and water. During grade shorting, the root portion are removed by cutting and baled separately known as bale cutting.
Cleanliness of fibre is an essential factor for high grade. Adhering portions of bark, specks sticks etc. are undesirable which affects grading according to their degree of presence.
Effect of Chemicals
- Water: Jute is a hygroscopic fibre i.e. it takes in or gives out moisture to its surrounding atmosphere. Under standard testing atmosphere, moisture content value is 12.8% and moisture regain value of this fibre is 14.6%.
- Acid: This fibre is damaged by the action of strong acid hence wet processing on Jute fibre is not done in
- Alkali: It is safe in alkali medium; hence wet treatment is done on alkali medium.
Effect of biological agents and light
It is attacked and damaged by the action of micro-biological agents like bacteria, fungus, moths, insects etc. in worm damp condition. Yellowing of the fibre is observed due to the effect of sunlight.
End uses of Jute Fibre
Jute is used for making yarn, twine, rope, sacking, cloth, hessian cloth, carpet backing cloth, carpet, mat, wall cloth, shopping bag, and as packing materials.